January 8, 2020

The Queen of the Andes

The biggest species, the tallest inflorescence, the longest-lived, perhaps the most dangerous? Puya raimondii is the leviathan of bromeliads, plants in the family Bromeliaceae. As an imposing organism growing in dramatic habitat, it’s an attention-getting member of a relatively unloved genus.

The species is native to the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia, found on rocky slopes between 9,800-15,700 feet. Exposed to harsh sun and extreme levels of ultraviolet light, freezing cold, and desiccating wind, the plants grow to 15 feet tall. When in flower, their spike-shaped inflorescences reach up to 50 feet.  

Huascaran National Park, Peru
Image by Urrola

Puya raimondii is well-adapted to its challenging environment. The slow-growing plants retain their dead fibrous leaves as an insulating skirt for their woody stems.Leaf edges are fiercely armed with sharp, hooked teeth that catch and resist releasing any vulnerable creature that attempts to investigate the plants.

Perhaps due to the hazard they might pose to livestock, or maybe just for amusement, the plants are often burned by locals. Increasingly intensive anthropogenic land use and long term climatological warming and drying is resulting in an overall decline of the species’ fragile populations. Most surviving populations are small and isolated, although a community of several hundred thousand plants is protected in Peru’s Hauascaran National Park.

Puya raimondii can take 80-100 years to bloom. After the hummingbird-pollinated flowers produce many thousands of seeds, the plants die.

Conditions in habitat are only occasionally favorable for germination and seedling survival. Although successful in a specific, challenging environment, its remarkably low level of genetic variation doesn’t bode well for adaptation to a changing world.
image by Wilmer




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