You should also be aware of what NOT to do, such as "hurricane pruning".
One of the unseen dangers of protracted rainfall is that the soil can become super-saturated, and allow trees to fall over with only moderate wind gusts. This tactic is likened to a spoon in a bowl of Jello; it can move easily in any direction. Since we have such weather problems, I suggest people keep their trees trimmed in such a way as to allow wind to pass through them easily, but this is not "hurricane pruning". An experienced arborist can remove selected parts of the canopy while maintaining the structural integrity of the tree. Overwatering and over-fertilizing can also lead to a dense canopy of soft wood and soft foliage, prone to breakage in weather events.
|This iconic photo shows what can|
happen in a hurricane.
This palm would be unfazed
by the damage, but may succumb
to root stress.
Palms NEVER need "hurricane pruning" ! Palms are designed to withstand even fierce winds, and rarely blow over if they have solid root systems. palms usually have fairly strong root systems, provided they are furnished with enough potassium, and a fairly low nitrogen level. A 12-4-12, 12-4-15 or equivalent type of Palm Special fertilizer is adequate for the needs of most palms. Very high nitrogen products such as most turf fertilizers, will foster a lot of foliage and fewer roots than desired.
If palms and trees are damaged, tend to broken limbs immediately, using razor sharp tools, and make the cuts as cleanly as possible. In the case of trees, cutting very close to, but not into, the ring of tissue surrounding the base of the branch ( the bark "collar") is good arbor practice. Palm fronds should be cut to the nearest broken part of the frond leaving as much of the frond intact as possible. Where trees and palms can be stood up after a storm, the soil should be watered into place to eliminate air pockets, and the roots should be well watered for several months to allow new roots to form. Expect a recovery time of 3-5 years after such trauma, and even longer for trees older than 30 years.
|A tree will recover from this type|
of damage, but will need 7-12 years to
get a solid structure again
One big mistake people make after storms damage their trees is to fertilize them, thinking that the roots will grow faster if there is ample fertility in place. The truth is just the opposite: concentrated fertilizers applied after a major root trauma can burn roots to death, and kill the tree or palm shortly afterward. It is wise to wait 4-6 months after the trauma, and fertilize at 1/2 the normal rate until a full set of new leaves or fronds can be produced. In the cases of old palms and trees, they make not recover fully for 7-10 years, so monitor them carefully, looking for the rate at which new fronds or leaves are produced, versus those which drop off. If the new vs old ratio is better than 1:1, you're on the right track.
The main messages to remember about recovering trees and palms after a major weather problem are to treat them carefully, removing drought stress, making sure they are secured in the ground until they-re-root, and fertilizing them gently until full recovery is attained. Damage can come from even modest storms, which can have violent, very localized damage, sometimes affecting one tree in the middle of a group. There are many ways storms can damage a garden, from rain, wind, lightning, flying object debris, and so on. Lightning is one of the most dangerous, since it arrives without warning, and of unknown strength. It can be accompanied by supernatural wind bursts, sometimes called downburst cells, which can squash a 400 ton jetliner to the ground like a bug.
Lightning can kill one palm in a grove, but the "side shocks" from the strike can kill plants up to 50 feet away. Downburst wind cells can fell an entire group of trees in a counter-rotating pinwheel arrangement, defying any law of reason. You can't prevent the damage, but you can become educated about repairing your garden's primary residents.